Skin conditions on the face: symptoms, causes and solutions
The face is certainly the most beautiful, distinctive and intricate part of our body. It is our main tool to recognise one another and is vital for communication. As the functional and aesthetic reference point for our entire body, the face should be proudly on show.
The face is almost always exposed and very rarely covered by clothing or accessories.
This means that it is often vulnerable to the elements, pollution and other atmospheric agents, which increase the risk of facial skin conditions.
A healthy face improves the quality of people’s lives. Unhealthy facial skin, on the other hand, can impact a person’s self-esteem to the extent that every day life becomes difficult.
Acne is one of the most common facial skin conditions. It is an inflammatory disorder of the face’s pilosebaceous follicles. It can occur at any point in life: in youth, during puberty, or later in adulthood. Acne is defined as polymorphic due to the simultaneous presence of blackheads, pimples and papules on the face.
Acne rosacea is a form of erythematous folliculitis which can affect the whole face, including the eyelids and conjunctiva. The condition, which mainly affects adults, causes erythematous follicular papules or pustules. Unlike acne vulgaris, however, comedones are not present. Acne rosacea is often confused with rosacea, but the two are not related in any way and do not share any similar treatments.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition on the face. It consists of a rash that causes itching alongside redness, scaling and/or cracking of the skin.
Eyelid dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction that often appears suddenly, causing a rash across the eyelid. Symptoms include redness, itching, wrinkling and peeling of both the upper (most common) and lower eyelids. The eyelids can also become cracked.
Perioral dermatitis causes erythematous papules and, in some cases, folliculitis or furuncles. This dermatitis is characteristically arranged around the mouth, hence its name, and is a very common skin condition in young women.
Rosacea is an aesthetic disorder that causes the redness and dilation of blood vessels on the cheeks. The affected skin is generally dry, sensitive, easily irritated and intolerant of many cosmetic products. Rosacea sufferers may have sudden flares of redness in response to triggers such as moving between hot and cold atmospheres; stress or during digestion.
MELASMA (DARK SPOTS)
Melasma, or chloasma, is a pigmentation disorder common in young women. Melanin is a pigment of the melanocytes cell and, instead of distributing itself evenly to create a tanned complexion, the melanin accumulates in patches which usually appear on the forehead, cheeks or upper lip, and often cause sufferers to feel self-conscious.
COMEDONES (BLACK HEADS AND WHITE HEADS)
Comedones are an accumulation of keratin (cellular material) and lipids (fats) at the outlet of the hair follicle. There are two types of comedones: closed comedones, or whiteheads; open comedones, or blackheads.
Oily skin (seborrhoea) is a particular skin type characterized by overactive sebaceous glands. Oily skin can appear thick and shiny, and is often particularly noticeable on the forehead.
The skin of the face is rich with sebaceous glands which provide natural protection against dry skin. However, in some individuals, the production of sebum is too low, causing skin to dry out.
SUN DAMAGED SKIN
Sun damaged skin, often in the form of sunburn, is almost inevitable and can occur in all individuals. In fact, from birth, the skin is constantly exposed to both visible and invisible radiation: Solar radiation and Ultraviolet radiation.
Facial flushing is a response to external stimuli and is caused by the dilatation of the skin’s vascular compartment which produces sudden reddening.
FOLLICULITIS AND SHAVING IRRITATION
Folliculitis is the inflammation of the hair follicle. If neglected, folliculitis causes infection, which can lead to further skin disorders and, in serious cases, can trigger furunculosis. Shaving with a blade can cause skin irritation in the form of redness, dry skin, itching and a burning sensation in affected areas.